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SESSION 1912-1913 

Louisiana State 
Normal School 


JUNE 3, 1912— JUNE 13, 1913 

The Normal Quarterly 

of the 

Louisiana State Normal 

Natchitoches, Louisiana 


Published Quarterly 



Twenty-seventh Year 

VOL. 1 JULY 1, 1912 No. 3 

entered at the post office at Natchitoches , La., as second-class mail matter. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

CALENDAR FOR 1911-1912. 

Commencement Week. 

Annual Sermon to Graduates 11 A. M. May 19, 1912 

Exercises of Religious Organizations.. 8 P. M., May 19, 1912 

Address to Alumni 8 P. M., May 21, 1912 

Intersoeiety Contest 8 P. M., May 22, 1912 

Graduation Exercises 10 A. M., May 23, 1912 

Summer Quarter and Summer School. 

Spring Vacation May 25 to June 2, 1912 

Dormitories Open Sunday, June 2, 1912 

Enrolment and Examinations Monday, June 3, 1912 

Class Work Begins Tuesday, June 4, 1912 

Final Examinations August 7 to 9, 1912 

Summer Quarter Ends Saturday, August 10, 1912 

Fall Quarter. 

Dormitories Open Sunday, September 22, 1912 

Enrolment and Examinations Monday, September 23, 1912 

Term Begins Tuesday, September 24, 1912 

Term Closes Friday, December 13, 1912 

Mid-winter Vacation December 14 to December 29,1912 

Winter Quarter. 

Term Begins Monday, December 30, 1912 

Winter Term Closes Friday, March 21, 1913 

Spring Quarter. 

Term Begins Monday, March 24, 1913 

Term Closes Friday, June 13, 1913 

The Normal Quarterly 



ITis Excellency, J. Y. Sanders Governor of Louisiana 

Baton Rouge. 
Hon. T. H. Harris 

State Superintendent of Public Education, 

Baton Rouge. 

V. L. Roy : . President State Normal School, 



Hon. J. C. Foster First District 


Hon. Henry Bernstein Second District, 


Judge A. J. Laf argue Second District 


Hon. Solon Farrnbacher Fourth District 

Baton Rouge. 

Dr. L. Fourgeaud Fifth District 

Breaux Bridge. 

Dr. Z. T. G-allion Resident Administrator 



Gov. J. Y. Sanders, President Baton Rouge 

Hon. J. C. Foster, Vice-President Shreveport 

Mr. Edward Phillips, Treasurer Natchitoches 

.Mr. T. P. Chaplin, Secretary Natchitoches 

The Normal Quarterly 


The Normal Quarterly 

The Faculty. 


Victor Leander Roy, 

Heber Hinds Ryan, 

Principal Training Department, 

School Administration, Applied Psychology. 
Miss Jessie E. Bowden, 

Principles and Methods of Teaching. 
Miss Roberta Newell, 

History of Education, Sociology. 
Miss Helena Lydia Messerschmidt, 

Psychology, Physical Training. 
George Williamson, 

Botany, Zoology. 
Leon Albert Davis, 

Chemistry, Physics. 
Mrs. Lizzie Carter McVoy, 

Literature, Discourse. 
Miss Dean Edwards Varnado, 

English, History. 
Miss Orra E. Carroll, 

Discourse, Argumentation. 
Miss Mabel Moore, 

Grammar, Composition. 
Peter Thompson Hedges, 

Robert Edgar Bobbitt, 

Mathematics, Civics. 
Clarence Gilbert Pool, M. D., 

Physiology, Athletics. 
Robert Whitthorne Winstead, 

John Corbly South, 

Latin, Writing. 
Ltlltane D 'Ery, 


The Normal Quarterly 

Cyrus Jay Brown, 

Principal Department Rural Education, Rural Econo- 
mics, Rural School Management. 
John Wesley Bateman, 

Agriculture, Industrial Geography. 
Francis E. Merriman, Jr., 

Dairying, Farm Animals, Farm Machinery. 
Arch Milburn Hopper, 

Manual Training, Shop Practice. 
Miss Harriet F. Glendon, 

Domestic Art and Science. 
Miss May Phillips, 

Miss Isabel Williamson, 

Henry Wallace Stopher, 

Public School Music, Leader of Band. 
Miss Bessie Virginia Russell, 

Critic Teacher, First Grade. 
Miss Jemmie Nelson, 

Critic Teacher, Second Grade. 
Miss Carrie Alicia Dickson, 

Critic Teacher, Third Grade. 
Miss Bess Ashton Graham, 

Critic Teacher, Fourth Grade. 
Miss Carmen Breazeale, 

Critic Teacher, Fifth Grade. 
Miss Edna Levy, 

Critic Teacher, Sixth Grade. 
Miss Augusta Nelken, 

Critic Teacher, Seventh Grade. 
John Edward Guardia, 

Critic Teacher, Eight and Ninth Grades. 
.Miss Amelia Eustatia Gaulden, 

Critic Teacher, Tenth and Eleventh Grades. 
Scharlie Russell, 

^liss Anna Maud VanHoose, 


The Normal Quarterly 

Miss Eva A. Norris, 

Piano and Voice. 
Miss Ethel Kennedy, 

Piano and Violin. 
Miss Mary Louise Dickinson, 

Mrs. Henry Hawkins, 

Mrs. Lillie M. Keane. 

Graduate Nurse. 
Mrs. M. V. Wildesex, 

J. C. Monroe, 

Leven Louis McCook, 

Robin L. Smith, 

Superintendent of Grounds. 
T. J. Weaver, 

W. T. Row, 



"Ward Anderson, 

Principal DeRidder High School. 
H. M. Culter, 

Kansas State Normal School. 
A. M. Hendon, 

Superintendent West Feliciana. 
D. G. Lunsford, 

Principal Arcadia High School. 
L. L. Perrault, 

Principal Bunkie High School. 
Miss Ruth M. Thompson, 

Kidder Institute, Kidder, Mo. 

The Normal Quarterly 


L. J. Alleman, 

State Institute Conductor. 
A. E. Bath, 

Superintendent Natchitoches Parish. 
J. H. Bres, 

Superintendent West Baton Rouge Parish. 

C. E. Byrd, 

Superintendent Caddo Parish. 
Jno. M. Foote, 

Superintendent Terrebonne Parish. 
W. S. Laf argue, 

Superintendent Lafourche Parish. 
J. J. Mixon, 

Superintendent Winn Parish. 

D. B. Sho WALTER, 

Superintendent Rapides Parish. 
Chas F. Trudeau, 

Superintendent Pointe Coupee Parish. 

E. H. Turner, 

Superintendent Caldwell Parish. 

The Normal Quarterly 



The Normal School was established by Act of the General 
Assembly of Louisiana July 7, 1884. The State Board of Edu- 
cation located the school at Natchitoches, and the buildings and 
grounds of the Convent of the Sacred Heart were bought by 
the Parish of Natchitoches and given to the school. 

The first session began November 1, 1885. Dr. Edward E. 
Sheib was president from 1885 to 1888, Colonel Thomas D. Boyd 
from 1888 to 1896, Mr. B. C. Caldwell from 1896 to 1908, and 
Dr. Jas. B. Aswell from 1908 to 1911. 


The Act of establishment declares that the school shall be 
maintained "for the benefit of such white persons of either 
sex as may desire and intend to teach in the public schools of 
Louisiana. ' ' 

The Normal School is maintained by the State to train 
teachers for the public schools. 

The necessary equipment of the succesful teacher includes 
wholesome personality, sound scholarship and technical skill. 
The first of these cannot be furnished by any school; it comes 
by inheritance and early enviroment; but it is the function of 
the Normal School to enlarge and strengthen it. and to add 
to it the qualifications of liberal learning and teaching power. 

The course of training is planned with these ends in view. 
The first two years of the course aim at thoroughness in mastery 
of the subjects of the public school course, while the last two 
years are given chiefly to the study of education and to teaching 
in the practice school. 

The conditions maintained at the Normal School give an 
environment that tends steadily to develop character and capac- 
ity for work. The course of study, the professional training, the 
companionship of hundreds of young men and women engaged 
in a common life-work, the intimate contact with many strong 
teachers, and the lectures and addresses given by scholarly men 

10 The Normal Quarterly 

from all parts of the country, help to establish high ideals of 
service. The stimulating influence of the literary societies, the 
opportunity to hear really good music, to see some good pictures 
and statuary, and to use the library, with its thousands of books 
and ample periodical literature, help to refine the taste, quicken 
the appreciation and strengthen the love of learning. 

The well organized practice school, the new manual training 
rooms, the laboratories and library, the ventilating system in the 
academic building, the baths and screens in the dormitories, the 
beautiful grounds, with forest, lake and swimming pool, guar- 
antee a delightful experience to those who come to take advan- 
tage of the excellent courses offered. 


Of all places in Louisiana, none surpasses, in historical im- 
portance and interest, the town and parish of Natchitoches, once 
the haunt of the Natchitoches and Doustiony Indians. Indeed, it 
may be said that very few points in the Southwest are more re- 
plete with historical associations or played more important a 
role in the pioneer days of French, Spanish and English Amer- 
ica. One of the best known and most important points on the 
old San Antonio trail, it was the scene of strife and contest, out 
of which the European settler emerged triumphant. Here, 
within sight of the Normal School, are the ruins of the old 
French Fort; to the south-east is the spot where St. Denis, in 
defense of the French, slaughtered more than four score Natchez 
Indians and practically exterminated the tribe; here are buried 
men and women of noble lineage; and here, in the veins of 
living men, flows blood of some of the bravest heroes that ever 
set foot on American soil. 

The Normal School, situated at the south end of the town 
and within its corporate limits, occupies an elevated position at 
the south-eastern extremity of the Natchitoches pine hills. Its 
elevation affords a view of the beautiful, historic, alluvial coun- 
try to the east and south and ensures perfect drainage. Its per- 
manent dining hall and dormitories, the living quarters of the 
school, are being erected amidst pine trees, in a virgin pine 
forest, thus ensuring the most salubrious conditions possible. 

The Normal Quarterly 11 

Natchitoches is a town of 4,000 inhabitants, situated a little 
northwest of the center of the State, on the Texas and Pacific 
and the Louisiana and Northwest Railways, 150 miles northwest 
of Baton Rouge, and 70 miles southeast of Shreveport. The 
town is 200 years old and is full of historic interest. 


Academic Building. — The main academic building, erected 
at a cost of $116,000, contains thirty-four class rooms, two large 
laboratories for physics, chemistry, botany and zoology, five 
music rooms, cloak and store rooms, and a handsome auditorium 
with a seating capacity of 750. In the basement rooms are the 
departments of domestic science, handwork, and manual train- 

Dining Hall. — This is a two-story concrete structure at the 
western extremity of the dormitory court. It was erected during 
1911. The main dining room has accommodation for 1,000 
students. The kitchen, thoroughly equipped, is fire-proof. The 
fire-proof pantries, a work room for the preparation of food, two 
offices for the matron, a chafing-dish room, a linen room, and 
a reception room complete the first floor. The second story con- 
sists of sixteen bed-rooms for young lady students, with bath- 
room and all sanitary accommodations. The matron's quarters 
are on this floor. Two concrete walks lead from the academic 
court to the dining hall. 

Concrete Dormitory. — This two-story building, erected in 
1910, has forty-six commodious rooms, accommodating ninety- 
two lady students. It forms part of one side of the new dormi- 
tory court. Its basement offers ample bath-room facilities, with 
sanitary closets on both floors as well as in the basement. 

Other Dormitories. — The school uses also for dormitory 
purposes six other buildings, known as East Hall, West Hall, 
Old Dining Room Building, Model School, Boyd Hall, and the 
Bullard Home. 

Concrete Laundry. — All students in the normal boarding 
elub are required to have their clothes laundered at the school's 
new steam laundry. This is a one-story, fire-proof, concrete 
building. Its capacity is, at present, 600 students. All irons 

12 The Normal Quarterly 

are heated by electricity. Steam drying is employed. The rates 
to students is one-third of list price; and the list price is below 
that of commercial laundries. 

Other Buildings. — The President's Cottage stands west of 
the man entrance to the grounds. The power-house is so situ- 
ated that it will stand next to and behind the science hall when 
that building is erected. The dairy barn has stall space for fifty 
cows, ten head of horses and mules, grain bins and hay loft of 
ample capacity. Four cottages, a calf barn, a lumber shed, and 
covered stall for wagonettes and teams complete the present 
equipment of buildings. 

New Dairy Barn. — A contract has recently been let for 
the erection of a concrete dairy barn at the expense and for the 
use of the Normal Club. This barn will be fire-proof in every 
respect, will have fifty stalls, and will be so constructed as to 
make possible the application of the most approved sanitary 
measures. The barn floor will be of concrete, with stalls, gutters, 
troughs, etc., so arranged as to permit the use of water hose for 
cleansing purposes. The stalls will be the James Improved 
Sanitary, and the barn will be equipped with an overhead litter 
carrier. The silo will be of 150 tons capacity. The milk room 
will be erected at a point halfway between the barn and the 
dining hall. The whole barn and dairy are in charge of an 
expert dairyman. 

Swimming Pool. — For the use of the young ladies of the 
boarding club, a concrete swimming pool is provided. Its dimen- 
sions are 80x20 feet; its depth varies from 4 feet 10 inches at 
the ends to 6 feet in the center. During spring, summer, and 
fall, the pool is emptied and filled several times per week. The 
water used is from the salt well near the power house. This 
water is, in saline content and general appearance, almost iden- 
tical with sea water. Courses in swimming are offered to stu- 
dents during the spring, summer and fall quarters. The pool is 
provided with ten dressing rooms, each of which has a shower 
bath equipment for the use of students before entering and 
after leaving the pool. 

Light and Heat. — All dormitories, including the dining hall, 
are heated by steam, the Warren-Webster system being used. 

The Normal Quarterly 13 

The main academic building is heated by air warmed as it en- 
ters the building fresh from outside. 

The Power House supplies electricity for lighting purposes, 
for the laundry, and for the operation of fans in the class-rooms 
during the summer quarter. Electric irons are furnished free 
for the use of students in several dormitories. 

The Infirmary occupies a large room on the second floor of 
the old Model School building. It is in charge of a graduate 
nurse, who is in constant attendance upon those who may be 
sick or indisposed. 

Land. — Besides the original tract purchased by the town and 
parish of Natchitoches for the use of the Normal School, addi- 
tional land has recently been purchased. The school now owns 
267 acres of land. The campus occupies about twenty -five acres ; 
the athletic grounds, eight acres ; the garden, ten acres ; the fields, 
thirty acres; the pecan grove, twenty-five acres; the remainder 
being in open and wood pasture. 



As part of the State Normal School, a model or practice 
school is maintained in which the enrolment ranges from three 
hundred to three hundred and twenty-five. The school has eleven 
grades, of which the seven lower grades constitute the elemen- 
tary and grammar schools and the four higher grades the high 
school division of the practice department. In each grade of the 
school the work is planned to correspond with the courses of the 
public schools, but the work is elaborated and broadened through 
diligent study and consecrated effort on the part of the teachers 
in charge. 

The head of the training department of the Normal School is 
principal of the practice school. Nine expert teachers are in 
charge of the actual work of teaching and of the student teach- 
ers in their practice teaching in the grades. No effort is spared, 
either by critic or practice teachers, to make the instruction in 
the model school the best possible. The class-room equipment in 

14 The Normal Quarterly 

this school is ample to meet all the' needs of the best instruction ; 
and the conditions surrounding the pupils are made as favorable 
as possible. 

Heretofore the practice school has occupied the south end of 
the first floor of the main academic building. Hereafter it will be 
domiciled in a fifty-thousand-dollar model school house, forming 
the north end of the academic court. On February 8, 1912, the 
first ward of the Parish of Natchitoches, comprising the town of 
Natchitoches, voted a five-mill tax for twelve years to defray 
the cost of the new model school building. The tax of $50,000 
has been bonded and floated, and the erection of the building is 
under way. 

This new building, measuring 90x156 feet, will contain ten 
large class rooms, thirty-six small practice rooms, an auditorium 
with a seating capacity of four hundred, a large gymnasium, 
kindergarten room, a library, a domestic science department, 
with cooking, sewing and dining rooms, a manual training shop, 
sanitary closets, shower baths, locker and dressing rooms, and 
teachers' rooms. This building when completed will be a model 
of its kind, and, as the practice department of a normal school, 
will be surpassed by none in the entire South. 


A library of over five thousand books, with a subscription 
list of one hundred periodicals, including daily and monthly 
newspapers, professional, literary, technical and religious jour- 
nals and magazines is available for the use of the students. This 
is the general workshop of the school. Students are sent here 
with references, according to their advancement and individual 
needs, to the authorities and sources of information. They are 
assisted in looking up these references by the librarian, who is 
in constant attendance. 

The library is open from 8 :15 A. M. to 4 :30 P. M. and from 
5 :30 to 7 :30 P. M. every school day, and from 9 A. M. to 4 P. 
M. on Saturdays. 

The domestic, science department in the Normal School oc- 
cupies a large room in the main building. One end of the room 

The Normal Quarterly 15 

is used by classes in sewing ; the other is equipped for the work 
in cooking and food study. The equipment of both divisions 
of the department is ample to ensure efficient practice and in- 


Three rooms are given to this department, one of which is 
used wholly for the industrial work offered under 2C. In this 
room are provided tables and chairs for students, ample mater- 
ial, lockers, lavatories, etc. The manual training shop, also oc- 
cupying a capacious room, is equipped with work benches and 
tools for students. The supplies for this work are kept in a third 
room, in which are also stored the finished products of the man- 
ual training classes. 


The Biological Laboratory occupies a room in the main 
building, measuring 26x50 feet. It is well lighted and ventil- 
ated, and is equipped with tables and apparatus for laboratory 
work. The school owns thirty microscopes in use in this depart- 
ment. Glass cases contain an abundant museum of plant and 
animal specimens. A large portion of the archaeological speci- 
mens owned by Prof. Geo. Williamson is on exhibit in this lab- 
oratory. The room is fitted with electric stereopticon and screen, 
w r hich are in daily use; a large number of slides are available 
for class use. 

The Chemical Laboratory occupies a room of equal size 
with the biological laboratory. It is fitted for class-room and 
laboratory work. The tables have a capacity of forty-eight stu- 
dents ; and there is on hand a full line of apparatus and chemi- 
cals. This laboratory is also equipped with stereopticon and 

The Physics Laboratory is domiciled in a large room on 
the first floor of Boyd Hall. The room contains twelve large 
tables for experimental purposes, and all necessary apparatus is 
provided for classes of thirty in the several courses offered. For 
recitation purposes, the classes in physics use a room separate 
from the laboratory. 

16 The Normal Quarterly 


So fas as possible, all physical training is done out of doors ; 
but on inclement days, students are required to report to the 
gymnasium for exercise. The room, occupying the main por- 
tion of the second story of Boyd Hall, measures 60x100 feet in 
area. It is equipped with all necessary apparatus for vigorous 


The music department is domiciled on the third floor of the 
academic building, occupying four large rooms and a smaller 
room for voice work. Four teachers of pianoforte and violin are 
employed. The band uses one of the larger rooms for its re- 

The school owns a Steinway Grand, six Steinway Uprights, 
and ten pianos of other makes. All students studying pianoforte 
are required to practice one hour daily. 


The normal book store in the main building carries a full 
stock of all text books used in the Normal School. General sta- 
tionery -and supplies for classes in art, drawing, industrial work, 
etc., are also on hand. The prices of the book store are the list 
prices of publishers. The store-room is open all day, and is of 
great convenience to normal students. The model school books 
are not in stock in the book store, but must be purchased from 
the depository in the town of Natchitoches. 


The State Normal School is a professional school, and as such 
does not solicit anyone who does not expect to teach. 

Students are admitted to any term for which they are pre- 
pared. To enter the first term, applicants must offer a certifi- 
cate of promotion from the eighth to the ninth grade of an ap- 
proved Louisiana high school, or pass examination in arithmetic, 
algebra through factoring, American history, geography, gram- 

The Normal Quarterly 17 

mar, and botany. Students of better attainments may enter 
a higher term, and complete the course in correspondingly 
shorter time. 

Graduates of approved high schools and holders of first grade 
teachers' certificates who have taught since certificates were is- 
sued, are admitted to the 2C class without examination, while 
those who have taught with second-grade certificates are ad- 
mitted without examination to the IB class. 

Teachers should be strong men and women, physically, men- 
tally, and morally; and weakness in any of these respects dis- 
qualifies the applicant. 

1. Age. Girls may be admitted after completing their fif- 
teenth year, young men after their sixteenth. Girls in their 
fifteenth year and boys in their sixteenth year cannot be ad- 

2. Health. Every applicant must present a certificate of good 
health and freedom from deformity. Blanks for this purpose 
are found in the back of the catalogue. 

Persons in a low state of health, of frail physique, defective 
eyesight, impaired hearing, consumptive tendency, or those hav- 
ing any deformity, are not admitted. 

Persons who have been exposed to contagious diseases, ty- 
phoid, yellow or scarlet fever, diptheria, measles or small-pox, 
cannot be admitted without a certificate from the Parish Health 

3. Character. Applicants must present certificate of good 
character, signed by the Parish Superintendent. If the applicant 
is not personally known to the Superintendent, the certificate 
may be signed by the Sheriff, Parish Clerk, Judge, or Police 

4. Pledge. Students receiving free tuition sign the following 
pledge : 

I, , Parish of 

declare my intention to attend the State Normal School until 
graduated, and to teach in the public schools of Louisiana for at 
least one year after graduation. 


The pledge is not construed to require continuous attendance. 
Many of the best students attend for only one or two terms at a 

18 The Normal Quarterly 

time, then teach for a while before completing the remainder of 
the course. 

Honorable release from the obligation may be obtained from 
the President on account of inability to do the required work, 
failure of health or eyesight, pecuniary necessity, or family be- 
reavement, or by payment of tuition fees for terms of attend- 

Students who do not expect to teach in Louisiana pay a tui- 
tion fee of $15 a term. 

Students from other states have the same privileges as Louis- 
iana students, provided they promise to teach in Louisiana or pay 
the tuition fees. 


The requirements for graduation are two: satisfactory com- 
pletion of the course of study and development of an acceptable 
degree of skill in teaching and control. They are equally indis- 
pensable; no amount of scholarship can take the place of teach- 
ing power, and no facility in teaching can atone for poor 

The diploma of the Normal School is authority for a license 
to teach in any public school of Louisiana for four years. It may 
be renewed indefinitely by the Board of Administrators. ' - upon 
satisfactory evidence of success, progress, and good character." 
Furthermore, the diploma of the State Normal School shall en- 
title its holder to such degree of preference in selecting teachers 
for the public schools of the State as may be deemed wise and 
expedient by the State Board of Education. 

Four classes are graduated each year, but there is only one 
commencement exercise, in May, at which time diplomas for all 
graduates of the year are given. 


The schools of Louisiana require five thousand white teachers. 
The average term of service is about four years, and a thousand 
Hew teachers are needed each year. 

Many of the Parish Boards now engage only trained teachers, 
and in every parish of the State some schools require normal 
graduates. As popular interest in the. public school increases, 

The Normal Quarterly 19 

there is an increasing demand for trained men and women ; and 
for several years the Normal School has had many more calls for 
graduates than it could supply. 

Capable, well trained teachers are eagerly sought by school 
boards, not only in Louisiana, but throughout the South. And 
every man and woman prepared to give superior service in the 
schoolroom may be sure of prompt employment in responsible 
positions at good salaries. 

For several years the graduating classes of the Normal 
Schools have been practically all engaged in advance of gradu- 
ation. The demand for trained teachers may be expected to in- 
crease ; and the public school service offers an inviting field to the 
strongest and worthiest young men and women of the State. 

Graduates of the Normal School are filling well many im- 
portant school positions as Parish Superintendents, High School 
Principals, and teachers in the best schools of the State, while 
many others are rendering equally valuable service in the rural 

The courses of study equip teachers for success in their chosen 
lines of work. 



Tuition at the Normal School is free in all departments ex- 
cept instrumental music. For instruction in pianoforte, violin 
and voice, the tuition fee is $12.00 per term of three months, 
payable in advance. No charges, however are made for in- 
struction in public school singing or to members of the band. 

The following fees are charged by the term and are payable 
in advance: $2.00 for registration, and $1.00 for athletics. 
Students pursuing laboratory courses in the sciences are charged 
a fee of $1.00 per term for materials consumed. No deduction is 
made in fees when the attendance covers only a fractional part 
of a term. 

Students pursuing special courses or courses not leading to 
graduation are charged a fee of $15.00 per term. The same fee 

20 The Normal Quarterly 

is charged to all students who do not expect to teach in Louis- 


The charge for board in the club is $12.00 per month of four 
weeks, payable in advance. For less than a week, board is fifty 
cents a day. This amount covers board, lodging, lights, heat and 
service. The charge for laundry is $2.00 per month, also payable 
in advance. For this amount, club members are entitled to a 
service aggregating $6.00 at laundry list rates. Laundry in 
excess of this amount is charged at list rates. 

Mothers and sisters of club members, when in the club, are 
charged $1.00 a day. No other visitors are accommodated. 

The infirmary fee, payable at the opening of each term by 
every club member, is $1.00. This covers cost of attendance by 
graduate nurse, service when sick, and medicine. In case of pro- 
tracted or serious illness, requiring the services of a physician, 
extra nursing, or pharmacy prescriptions, such expenses are 
charged to the patient. 


The Normal School is now equipping a men's dormitory, 
which will accommodate sixty students. In the assignment of 
space in this dormitory, preference will be given to those stu- 
dents already enrolled in school. The charges for board and 
laundry here will be at club rates. Male students not in the 
club board in the town at rates of from $3.50 to $4.00 per 
week. Laundry costs about $1.50 per month. 


The following is an estimate of the average cost of attendance 
per term to a regular student boarding in the club : 

Board at $12.00 per 4 weeks $36.00 

Laundry, $2.00 per 4 weeks 6.00 

Incidental, athletic and infirmary fees 4.00 

Books and stationery 9.00 

Total $55.00 

The Normal Quarterly 21 


Under the name of the Normal Boarding Club, the school has 
in a semi-official manner conducted for many years a dormitory 
and boarding department. This has heretofore been restricted 
to young women, by whom seven dormitories have been used 
regularly. Among these are comprised the new fire-proof con- 
crete dormitory erected in 1910, and the second story of the new 
dining hall, which is also fire-proof. 

One of the frame buildings formerly used by women has re^ 
cently been moved to a portion of the grounds set aside for the 
young men sudents, and is now in use as a men's dormitory. 

There is now dormitory accommodation on the normal 
grounds for six hundred and fifty women and sixty men. All 
lady students from a distance board at the school during the fall, 
winter and spring quarters. 

All bedrooms are comfortable and properly furnished with 
single beds, mattresses, chairs, tables, dressers, wardrobes, wash- 
stands or lavatories, steam heat and electric light. 

Students provide their own pillows, sheets, blankets, bed- 
spreads, towels, and napkins. Feather beds and cotton com- 
forts and quilts are not allowed in the dormitories. All club 
girls must be provided with umbrellas and rubber shoes. 

Members of the club are required to make up their beds and 
keep their rooms in order and neat appearance. Service in the 
rooms is furnished by the club, being comprised in the charges 
for board. Inspection of the rooms is made at intervals by the 
President accompanied by the lady in charge of each dormitory. 

Assignments to rooms are made by the matron of the club, 
and choice is given to students who are already members of the 
club. New students are not permitted t\o select rooms. 

All dormitories are kept in strictly neat and sanitary condi- 
tion. Sanitary closets are provided in every building ; and every 
club member has free access, under club rules, to bath rooms 
found in each dormitory. All bath tubs are the best enameled, 
and are provided with hot and cold water. 

The club is governed by the President of the school, and re- 
ceives his personal attention throughout the year. 

The beautiful Normal Hill is the home and recreation 
grounds of the members of the club after school closes in the af- 

22 The Normal Quarterly 


1. Applicants must file certificates of good health and good 
character, and agree to observe the club rules. 

2. Club members are required to conduct themselves with 
propriety, and to show due regard for the rights of others. 

3. Members cannot leave the ground without reporting to the 
matron, both on leaving and returning. 

4. No member will be permitted to spend the night away 
from the club, and requests to this effect from parents will al- 
ways be refused. 

5. Young women living in the club are not permitted to re- 
ceive calls from gentlemen. 

6. Club members are not allowed to receive packages of food. 

7. Medicines must not be kept in bedrooms. No narcotic, in- 
toxicants, or poisonous substance is allowed under any circum- 
stances. Remedies for the simple ailments incident to school life 
are kept and dispensed by the nurse. When a student is sick 
enough to need the attention of a physician, she is taken to the 
infirmary and placed in charge of a graduate nurse. 

8. On Sunday, club members must attend day services at the 

9. For minor violation of the club rules, a member may be 
put under arrest, which means forfeiture of privileges for the 
time. For any grave violation of rules or of propriety, for con- 
tinuous neglect of duty, or unbecoming conduct, the member will 
be dismissed. 

Nearly all the club members are preparing themselves for their 
life work, most of them at their own expense. And with students 
of this class the largest possible liberty may be safely allowed. 
Every feature of the club management rests on the assumption 
that the students are capable of self-control, and that they desire 
to advance the interest and welfare of the club. 


In the fall, winter, and spring terms, breakfast is served at 8 
ick; luncheon at 12:10; dinner at 5. In the summer term, 
the hours an; '-lumped to suit conditions. 

No rising hour is prescribed, and students are advised to 

The Normal Quarterly 23 

sleep as late as possible in the morning. Negligee dress is not 
allowed in dining room. 

It is harmful for students to have too much spending money, 
and simplicity in dress is desirable. 

Parents are advised to have their daughters' clothing made at 
home. Simplicity in dress is insisted on, and modesty of attire 
is expected of all young ladies in the club. 


The Alumni Association maintains a loan fund from which 
temporary loans are made to students in the last year of the 
Normal School, to be paid out of the first year's earning after 
graduation. The graduating class of 1909 began a movement to 
raise a Five Thousand Dollar Alumni Loan Fund by subscribing 
five dollars each. Succeeding classes have followed this example 
and in 1910 the Alumni Association gave the plan official en- 
dorsement. Active efforts have since then been made by the 
Association, particularly within the past few months, to have 
this entire amount subscribed. Their efforts have been meeting 
with success and there is now on hand and pledged about two 
thousand of the five thousand dollars. It is expected that the en- 
tire amount will be on hand within this year. Loans are now 
being made from the latter fund as well as the former. The 
number of students now aided by loans from the Alumni Asso- 
ciation is thirty-two, this number comprising students now in 
the school as well as teachers indebted to the fund. The total 
number of young men and women whose education has in part 
been made possible through the Alumni Association is seventy; 
and the amount now outstanding in loans is $2,651.20. 


This scholarship, in memory of the first training teacher of 
the State Normal School, was established by the Alumni Asso- 
ciation in 1897. It is a gift scholarship and the award is made 
by a committee of the Association. Students prepared for the 

24 The Normal Quarterly 

2C class or a higher class are eligible to this appointment. Eight 
young women have, up to this time, been awarded the Alby L. 
Smith Scholarship. 


The Louisiana Federation of Women's Clubs maintains a 
scholarship in the State Normal School. The scholarship fund 
of the Federation is now in excess of $1,000. From this fund 
loans are made from time to time, as may be necessary, to the 
scholarship student. No charges are made for interest. The 
return of the loan begins with the second month of the bene- 
ficiary's employment as teacher, and the amount to be returned 
monthly is expected to be not less than ten dollars. 


The General Assembly of 1904 authorized by enactment an 
appropriation by each of the police juries of the State for the 
maintenance of a beneficiary student at the State Normal School. 
The selection of the scholarship student from each parish 
lies wholly with the police jury, and is ordinarilly made either 
by vote of that body or by competitive examination. The amount 
usually appropriated is $55.00 per term, or $165.00 for the year. 
This covers necessary expenses for board, laundry, lights, fuel, 
service, fees, books and stationery. 

The police jury in each of the following parishes has, during 
the session 1911-1912, maintained a scholarship student in the 
Louisiana State Normal School : 

Acadia Jefferson 

Ascension Madison 

Assumption Natchitoches 

Caddo Ouachita 

Concordia Plaquemines 

De Soto Pointe Coupee 

Evangeline Rapides 

Franklin Red River 

Granl Sabine 

[beria St. Charles 

Iberville St. Landry 

Jackson St. M<iry 

The Normal Quarterly 25 

St. Tammany "West Baton Rouge 

Tensas West Carroll 


These students are among the best in the school, and as shown 
by the splendid services rendered the parishes by those scholar- 
ship students who have graduated and become teachers, the par- 
ish funds cannot be better invested than in the training of good 
teachers for the youth of the State. 

Several other scholarships, besides those named above, are 
maintained at the State Normal School by benevolent citizens 
and clubs. Among these is the Hypatia Memorial Scholarship, 
of the Hypatia Club of Shreveport. This is a loan scholarship, 
no interest being charged on loans. 



There are four literary societies. The Seekers After Knowl- 
edge, the Eclectic Literary Society, the Modern Culture Club, and 
the Mortar Board Society. In the first three, membership is lim- 
ited to the classes above 2B. The Mortar Board Society is 
composed of students from the lower terms, and is under the 
supervision of a faculty committee. Regular meetings are held 
every Saturday night, to which only members are admitted, and 
open meetings are given once a term by each society. At com- 
mencement there is an inter-society contest in oratory, declama- 
tion, extemporaneous speaking, music, and parliamentary prac- 

A term of successful work in any of the three advanced 
literary societies constitutes a society credit. Three such credits 
are required for graduation. Students having five or more so- 
ciety credits may substitute two of them for a condition in Eng- 
lish in any course. A society credit may be made by doing 
two terms of successful work in the Mortar Board Society, one 
of which terms must be 2B. 

26 The Normal Quarterly 


The Normal School is a public, unsectarian school. It aims 
to throw around the students refined moral influences and to 
develop high ethical and religious standards of living. 

Students are required to attend the services of the churches 
in Natchitoches— Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, and Methodist, 
and the B 'nai Israel Synagogue. All of these have earnest mem- 
bers in the faculty, and students of every faith have abundant 
opportunity to observe all the requirements of their church 

The Young Men's Christian Association, the Young Women's 
Christian Association, and the Apostleship of Prayer have ef- 
ficient organizations for religious and charitable work. 

The young men and the young women of the student body 
maintain separate athletic associations, the purposes of which 
are the representation in an organic way of the students in all 
athletic work of the institution. Regular officers are elected and 
committees are appointed who care for the athletic equipment of 
the several sports, assist in laying off and maintaining courts, 
fields and tracks, and make recommendations to the general ath- 
letic committee. On this committee each association is represent- 
ed by its president and secretary. Entertainments are given 
during the year by each association. 


Under the direction of Mr. H. W. Stopher, teacher of public 
school music, a band was organized among the normal boys on 
April 12, 1911. Instruments which belong to the town of Natchi- 
toches were lent the school for the beginning by the City 
Council. These instruments are in good condition and of 
the very best make. The present membership is thirty-six, with 
the following instruments : Nine cornets, nine wood instruments, 
five altos, two baritones, four trombones, five basses and two 
drums. Twenty of the instruments belong to the boys who play 
1 hem, and four belong to the band. The band also owns four more, 
which arc not in present use. The value of the instruments now 
in the hand is approximately $1,000. The organization owns 

The Normal Quarterly 27 

a hundred dollars' worth of music, and handsome uniforms to 
the value of four hundred dollars, paid for in part by concerts 
given by the band. Three rehearsals are held weekly. 

It is the intention of the management to secure a first-class 
instrument for each player as soon as possible. Since its organ- 
ization, the band has been self-supporting and self-governing. 
Except in actual rehearsal and during public appearances, the 
leader is a member only. The only permanent committee has 
charge of the band equipment. This committee calls in for in- 
spection all uniforms and other property at the end of each 

During the year the band has furnished music at the Natchi- 
toches Parish Fair and several public meetings, as well as at 
school entertainments and athletic events. The boys play fifty 
marches, waltzes, and selections. Its most ambitious attempt 
so far is the quartet from "Rigoletto," by Verdi, played at the 
anniversary concert given April 19, 1912. 


A boys' and a girls' glee club, separate organizations, are 
maintained under the direction of the instructor in charge of 
public school music. Both organizations are voluntary, but the 
membership is restricted to students who show a certain pro- 
ficiency in singing and who evince an interest in the work of the 
glee clubs. Two rehearsals of each club are held weekly, and 
the work is progressive. During the year, recitals are given 
by the clubs. On February 23, 1912, the girls' glee club present- 
ed "King Rene's Daughter" to an audience of 700 persons. No 
fees are charged for glee club instruction. Membership in these 
clubs is of great value to teachers who may be called upon to 
direct chorus work. 

In place of the usual recital during the spring term, it has 
been customary to give each glee club a prominent place on the 
program for commencement week. It has been planned next year 
to combine the glee clubs for one term and give an opera, with 
all its accessories of stage scenery, costumes, action, and orches- 
tra accompaniment. 

28 The Normal Quarterly 


The Mandolin and Guitar Club was organized in the fall of 
1911 and has been under the leadership of Mr. R. W. Winstead. 
No fee is attached to membership in the club. Students who 
can play the mandolin or guitar are invited to take advantage 
of this opportunity to keep in practice and to learn a better 
class of music than is usually played on such instruments. 

This is a voluntary organization of young men and women 
who study under the musical instructors. The orchestra has a 
membership of a dozen or more, and furnishes music during the 
week at assemblies of the student body and at some of the en- 
tertainments given during each term. No charges attach to mem- 
bership in the orchestra. 


It is the privilege of each of the four literary societies to 
have one quartet or double-quartet, the personnel of which may 
be selected by the chorister of each society, and given one period 
a week for practice. These rehearsals are under the super- 
vision of the teacher of public school music. For the past two 
years these ensemble numbers have appeared on the programs 
of the annual commencement contests. 


Through its lyceum course, the Normal School provides an 
opportunity for the students to enjoy each year a series of lec- 
tures, readings, and musical numbers. The aim of the lyceum 
committee is to bring to the students of the school the very 
best that is offered in literature, music and didactics. 

During the terms of 1911-12, an unusual privilege was of- 
fered the students in a series of lectures on the Single Tax ques- 
tion, delivered by Mr. Charles Frederick Adams. His services 
were secured through co-operation with citizens of Natchitoches. 
The regular course was devoted to music. David Bispham, Amer- 
ic;i's greatest baritone, Joseph Lhevinne, the world's famous 
pianist, and The Plonzaley, the greatest stringed quartet, made 
up the course. Students who have paid the regular athletic fee 
are admitted free to all lyceum entertainments. 

The Normal Quarterly 29 


Jointly with the regular course of the State Normal School, 
there is held annually a summer school under the auspices of 
the State Board of Institute Managers. This school is in opera- 
tion during the entire summer quarter of ten weeks, six days 
per week. All recitations are held during the forenoon, the 
daily assembly being held at 12 :40. Domestic science, labora- 
tory, and shop work are offered at convenient hours in the 

In the summer school, courses are offered in all subjects on 
which applicants for first and second grade certificates are ex- 
amined; and summer school students have the widest latitude 
in electing courses. The subjects thus offered comprise arithme- 
tic, algebra, geometry, grammar, literature, geography, physiol- 
ogy, civil government of Louisiana and the United States, spell- 
ing, physics, agriculture, history, drawing, theory and art of 
teaching, Louisiana school problems, primary education, kinder- 
garten work, elementary methods, and rural school management. 
In the more popular subjects, the work is offered in two, three, 
or four sections, to the end that students may almost invariably 
elect what branches they desire. 

In the regular normal course, considerable advanced work 
is available for alumni of the Normal School who expect to at- 
tend during the summer quarter of 1912. This comprises work 
in chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, mathematics, Latin, 
French and history. Besides these subjects, the course of study 
has recently been broadened by the addition of several subjects 
suitable for further study by normal graduates. Among these 
are rural school organization, farm animals, dairying and poul- 
try raising, economics and hygiene and sanitation. 

The summer school is conducted under the same rules of the 
Normal School as is regular term work. The same fees are 
charged ; tuition is free. For general directions, see other parts 
of this catalogue. 

The text-books used in the summer school are those adopted 
for the public schools of Louisiana. Applicants for admission to 
the summer school should bring with them such public school 
books as they may possess. 

30 The Normal Quarterly 

All summer school students should take receipt from railroad 
agents when buying tickets to Natchitoches. This insures a 
return rate of one-third fare. 


Athletic work at the State Normal School is carried on with 
a view of keeping it well balanced all along the terms, with the 
following points in mind: 

I. Physical welfare of the student. 

II. The training of the future teachers of the State so that 
they may intelligently exercise general supervision over public 
school athletics. 

III. Special instruction in those branches of athletics which 
have been introduced generally throughout the State. 

IV. The development of a correct idea of true sportsmanship 
and school spirit. 

Four credits are required in athletics. Every student 
must take some form of exercise during each term except the 
eleventh. Two hours of work are required each week, giving the 
student two-fifths of a credit per term. In order that a student 
may receive a credit attendance must be regular, a reasonable 
proficiency in the work must be attained, and a good knowledge 
of the rules of the various games acquired. The games in which 
credits are required are as follows : For the girls, tennis, basket 
ball, swimming, and an elective in some other sport ; for the boys, 
football, track, basket ball, base ball or tennis. 

The following are used during the proper season: Cross 
country, indoor base ball, hand ball, hockey and calisthenics. 

Besides the athletic director, members of the faculty assist 
regularly in the work. 

Fifteen tennis courts located in a group, afford accommoda- 
tion for fifty or more girls at one time. There are enough basket 
ball courts for all students who elect this sport. The new ath- 
letic field, lately finished, for the boys, is one of the best in the 
South. At one side of the field is a grand stand, which accom- 
modates twelve hundred people. A tall board fence surrounds 
the field A commodious building with shower baths and lock- 
ers is provided for the students. A well cindered and graded 
track surrounds the base ball and foot ball fields. 

The Normal Quarterly 31 

Swimming classes for the girls are open during the summer 
and parts of the spring and fall quarters, when it is possible 
to use the natatorium. The instructor in swimming is highly 
proficient, the exercise is excellent, and the course very popu- 

In Boyd Hall is a gymnasium equipped for basket ball, in- 
door baseball and calisthenics. Hockey can be played either 
in the gymnasium or on the tennis courts when not in use. 

The work in athletics is begun in the Model School in the 
form of games, marches, drills and such work among the boys 
as is suited to their stage of development. 

The one great) purpose is to make an attempt to remedy any 
physical defect in the student that can be overcome by carefully 
supervised physical exercise. 

32 The Normal Quarterly 


In addition to certain changes made in the course of study 
of the Normal School at the opening of the 1911 summer quarter, 
other changes will be put into effect at the opening of the 1912 
summer school on June 3d. These changes have to do with the 
advancement of the courses, a broadening of the scope of work, 
a rearrangement in the order of subjects and the inauguration 
of new courses. 

In order to effect a closer coordination between the high 
schools of Louisiana and the Normal School, all subjects of 
secondary school grade taught at the Normal School have been 
placed in the five lower terms, and all subjects of college grade 
are in the six higher terms. This change makes it possible to 
offer more advanced courses in the sciences, mathematics, history 
and kindred subjects; and through a system of elective subjects 
in the higher terms, opportunity is offered for specializing along 
certain lines. The changes referred to eliminate the work of the 
first term as offered during the past year, and add another term 
at the end of the course. 

Under the new order, graduates of approved high schools 
will be admitted to the 2C class, which corresponds to the seventh 
term of the past year. Besides, such students are given advanced 
credit in 2C chemistry. 

The general scope of Normal Work has been broadened and 
enriched in two ways : 1. By the addition of courses in higher 
subjects referred to above. Among these subjects are botany, 
zoology, physics, chemistry, history, economics, sociology, French, 
and Latin. 2. The addition of a course in rural education. The 
purpose of this course is to prepare teachers for more efficient 
service in the rural schools of the State; and it seeks not only 
to give the student a knowledge of those subjects which are of 
importance to rural life and the country school, but also to de- 
velop a sense of social service and to instill a proper attitude 
toward rural life betterment. 



The Normal Quarterly 





English 5 

Algebra 5 

Zoology 5 

Industrial Geog- 1 

raphy r • • • 6 

French or Latin} 
Drawing | 2q 

Singing J 


English 5 

Algebra 5 

History 5 

Agriculture ") 

French or > 5 

Latin J 
Drawing 1 10 

Singing J 


English 5 

Geometry 5 

History 5 

Physics 5 

Agriculture ~j 

French or > 5 

Latin J 



English 3 

Geometry 5 

History 5 

Physics 5 

Agriculture ") 

French or J- 5 

Latin J 

Singing 2 


English 3 

Geometry 5 

American History.... 5 

Chemistry 5 

Farm Animals 1 

French or }■ 5 

Latin J 
Drawing 2 


English 5 

Chemistry 5 

Psychology 5 

Dairying "J 

French or \ 5 

Latin J 
Manual Training ] 
Domestic Science 
Singing and Draw- )■ 5 

Advanced Algebra J 




Nature Study \ . . . . 
Physiography J 
Advanced Arithme- 
Farm Arithmetic 
French or Latin. . . 
Drawing and Sing- 
Physics, Civics 

Manual Training 
Domestic Science 


5 Pedagogy 

5 Applied Psychology 


Economics ] 

5 Physics > 

Botany J 
French or Latin 

5 History 

Manual Training 
Domestic Science 

5 Drawing and Sing- 

5 Pedagogy > . . . 5 

5 Special Methods J 

5 Teaching 5 

Physiology 5 

5 English 

Rural Economics 
Zoology and Chem- 

French or Latin 
D History 

Drawing and Sing- 
Farm, Shop or 
Domestic Science 



Teaching 5 

History of Education. 5 
Hygiene and Sanita- 
tion 5 

English 5 

Mathematics ") 


Zoology J- 5 

Farm Machinery 
Domestic Science J 


Teaching 5 

School Administra- 
tion )■ £ 

Rural School 

English .". 5 

Sociology 5 

Gardening 5 

34 The Normal Quarterly 


All subjects printed in Roman type in the outline of courses 
are required, and must be taken by all students. Subjects in 
italics are elective under the conditions explained below. 


All candidates for graduation must offer fifty-six credits in 
regular studies, four credits in athletics, and three literary so- 
ciety credits. Laboratory work and other subjects not requiring 
preparation or home study count two for one; and practice 
teaching with accompaning daily critiques counts one for two. 
Two literary society credits may be substituted for a condition in 
English. Courses in voice, pianoforte, violin, and other instru- 
ments count two for one and may be offered in lieu of singing 
where this subject is elective. 


Students preparing to teach mathematics must take a 
mathematical subject in 2C, 3 A, 3C, and 4 A. Those pre- 
paring for science work are required to take an elective 
science in 3A, 3B, 3C, and 4A under the condition of pre- 
requisites as explained in the syllabi of courses. Students 
electing the social science course must take civics 3A and ad- 
vanced history in 3B and 3C, economics in 3B and sociology 
in 4B. 


Students electing either the French or Latin course are re- 
quired to take the following subjects in each language: 1A, IB, 
1C, 2 A, 2B, 2C, and 3 A. Such students may also pursue as elec- 
tives French or Latin in 3B and 3C. 


Besides the required subjects, appearing in Roman type under 
the outline of courses, students pursuing the course in rural edu- 
cation must take 1A industrial geography; IB, 1C and 2A agri- 
culture ; 2B farm animals ; 2C dairying ; 3A farm arithmetic ; 3B 
economics, 3C rural economics; 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 4A manual 
training or domestic science, and 4B rural school organization. 

The Normal Quarterly 35 


Students pursuing this course are required to take all singing 
and drawing offered and also 3C special method in singing and 
drawing. Beginning with these subjects in class 2C, two hours 
count for one. 



I A. Color Work. Freehand representation; objects from 
nature, as fruit, vegetables, and flowers, in color. History of 
Architecture and Sculpture. Text — The Applied Arts Drawing 
Books, 5th and 6th years, are used. 

IB. Perspective. Parallel and angular perspective. Object 
study. Art history — Early Christian and Early Renaissance. 
The 7th and 8th years of The Applied Arts Drawing Books are 
here used. 

2B. Study op Human Figure. Illustration. Art History 
of the High Renaissance. Text — Art Education for High Schools. 

2C. Advanced Landscape Composition. Illustration. De- 
signs for use in domestic science, manual training, and for in- 
terior decoration. History of Art — High Renaissance continued, 
and the Decadence. Text — Art Education for High Schools. 

3A. Applied Design. Block printing, stenciling, embroid- 
ering, lantern making, etc. Use of Applied Arts Drawing Books. 
History of British and American Art. 

3B. Review and application of art principles. Black-board 
drawing. Illustration. Picture study. 

3C. Methods. Planning courses in drawing for use in 
public schools. Practice teaching. 


The work in this department has for its aim a two-fold pur- 
pose: to provide opportunity for those students pursuing the 
regular courses to receive some training along this line, and to 
make it possible for students to specialize in this work with a 
view of teaching it in the rural and the city graded schools. 

2C. Model Sewing (Handwork) and its application to 
sewing in elementary schools, including the following processes: 

36 The Normal Quarterly 

Basting, overcasting, overbanding, running stitch, hemming, 
cross stitch, catch stitch, French hpmming, darning, patching, 
types of plackets, button holes and seams. Some consideration 
is also given to the selection of materials with regard to quality 
and cost. 

Food Study. The aim of this subject is to provide some 
scientific basis for the course in cookery which will follow in 
3A. It will attempt to familiarize the student with the pro- 
cesses of metabolism in the body, the chemical composition of 
foods and nutritive and economic values. 

3A. Cookery. Special attention will be given to labora- 
tory technique. The cooking of typical carbohydrates, such as 
potatoes, cereals, and macaroni, and of the simpler protein foods, 
like milk and eggs, will be included. Careful study will be 
given to the selection of meats and how to prepare the inexpen- 
sive cuts in attractive ways. 

Plain Sewing.. (Garment Making). This will provide op- 
portunity for the study of patterns and designs, as well as for 
the development of individuality in the selection of materials. 
The use and care of sewing machines will also be included. 

Food Study. A continuation of the course in the preced- 
ing term. 

3B. Cookery. Food preservation, including canning and 
preserving; a study of leavening agents in the practical expe- 
rience of handling various types of batters and doughs; the 
preparation of simple salads and desserts, and the selection and 
preparation of fish, game and poultry. 

Household Administration. The purpose of this course is 
to increase the efficiency of the art of home-making and it will in- 
clude such phases of the subject as household hygiene and sanita- 
tion, interior decoration, a consideration of such problems as 
domestic service, household accounts, etc. Texts — Tyrell's 
Household Management, Elliot's Household Hygiene. 

3C. Cookery. In this term attention will be given to cor- 
rect combination of foods, with a view to the study of menus and 
the planning and serving of a simple luncheon at a limited cost. 

Dressmaking. The designing and making of a simple shirt 
waist suit. 

Home Nursing. To give a practical knowledge of the cause, 

The Normal Quarterly 37 

nature, and proper treatment in the home of common ailments; 
also to familiarize the student with the nature and treatment of 
common emergencies that may be met with in the home, the 
school, or elsewhere. This work will be emphasized by practical 
demonstrations where possible. 

4A. Cookery. A continued study of correct combinations 
followed by the planning and serving of an informal dinner. 
Invalid cookery. Frozen desserts. 

Dressmaking. Planning and making a simple wash dress, 
which may be used as a commencement dress. 


2C. Elementary Industrial Work. This course is based 
largely upon material easily obtained in all parts of the State. It 
is planned to give instruction in those forms of handwork that 
are most suitable for use in the elementary school and to study 
them from an educational point of view. The course includes 
burlap work, basketry, pine needle, raffia and reed, book binding, 
weaving, paper folding and cutting, card board construction and 
clay moulding. 

3A. Farm Shopwork. The aim of the following course is 
to give instruction in the use and care of the common tools which 
should be found on every up-to-date farm and also to take up the 
processes of construction so that every student will be able t<r 
make all the simple necessities and conveniences needed on the 
farm or in the farm home. The common woodworking tools, as the 
saw, chisel, plane, square, brace and bits, and drawing knife, 
will be studied as to their uses and care. Exercise will be taken 
up involving the correct manipulation of these different tools. 
A simple equipment for a farm shop will be constructed by the 
class collectively, consisting of a work bench, horses, miter box, 
tool chest, bench hood and mallet. A series of simple joints will 
be constructed consisting of the following: Butt, rabbett, lap, 
miter, dowel, glue, and mortice and tenon. 

3B. Farm and Home Conveniences. A number of objects 
needed on every farm will be constructed including the follow- 
ing: Gates, doors, feed boxes, troughs, ladders, milking stools, 
shelves, grape arbors, hot beds, poultry equipment as hen 
houses, brooder, nests and coops, whiffle trees, hammer and ax 

38 The Normal Quarterly 

handles, play ground equipment as tilt or see-saw, jumping bars, 
jumping board, and swings. Also fireless cooker, and out of door 
necessities as hitch racks, sheds, walks, sanitary privy, etc. 

3C. Work in Iron. This term's work will consist of simple 
forging in drawing and pointing, bending and shaping, cutting, 
flattening, tempering and welding, pipe fitting and cutting, and 
concrete work. 

4A. Farm Machinery. This course takes up the general care 
and use of the principal tools that are found on modern farms. 
It aims to develop in the student practice in quickly putting to- 
gether and handling common types of farm machinery. The 
care and use of gasoline engines is also included. 



The prescribed course of study for the piano requires ap- 
proximately four years of the regular student of average ability. 
Throughout the course, studies of varying degrees of difficulty 
adapted to the individual needs of the student are given. 

First Year. Scales, arpeggios, and broken chords. Twelve 
easy studies by Kohler; Czerny's Practical Method for Begin- 
ners; Gaynor Pedal Studies. Easy selections from Mrs. Crosby 
Adams, Hannah Smith, Gurlitt, Charles Dennee, Matthews, and 

Second Year. Scales, arpeggios, and broken chords. Twelve 
easy preludes by Bach, Heller, Czerny, Duvernoy, and Lemoine. 
Selections from Jensen, Schumann, Gade, McDowell, Mendels- 
sohn, and Grieg. 

Third Year. Pischna, Czerny, German Vol. II.,Bach's Two 
and Three-part Inventions, Kullak's Preparatory Octave Stud- 
ies, Sonatas by Mozart, Clementi, Czerny; Selections from 
Tarjeon, Leschetizky, Frimil, Greig, Chopin. 

Fourth Year. Bach's Well Tempered Clavichord, dementi's 
Graclus ad Parnassum, Kullak's Octave Studies, Cramer's 
Etudes, Sonatas by Beethoven. Works of Chopin, Grieg, Mc- 
Dowell, Tschaikowsky, Brahms, Saint-Saens, Moszkowski, Jen- 
sen, and Liszt. 


First Year. Correct position ; the use of the whole bow ; study 

The Normal Quarterly 39 

of tone. Elementary scales and arpeggios. Violin Method by 
Zanger. Etndes by Wohlfahrt, Op. 45. Easy selections from 
Lange, Tolhurst, Allen, Atherton, Ehrhardt, and Kohler. 

Second Year. Beginning third position. Scales and arpeg- 
gios. The use of different lengths of the bow. Etudes by Wohlf- 
ahrt, Op. 74, and Kayser. Duets by Mazas, Selections from 
Renard, Demuth, Case, Sitt, Schill, Braga, and Dancla. 

Third Year. Scales and arpeggios in third, fourth and fifth 
positions. Martele bowing. Studies by Dont. Duets by Pleyel. 
Selections from Barowski, Hauser, Elgar, Wohlfahrt, Saury, 
Neruda, and Godard. 

Fourth Year. Continuation of scales in positions. Scales in 
thirds. Staccato bowing. Studies by Kreutzer and Ries. Duetts 
by Viotti. Selections from Mascagni, Simonetti, Bohn, Heitsch, 
Thome, Pierne, de Beriot, d'Ambrosio, Papini, Vieuxtemps, and 


First Year. Deep breathing, tone placing, resonance, vocal 
exercises by Concone, Lehman, Marchesi, and Panofka. Simple 
songs by the standard composers. 

Second Year. Exercises for developing flexibility and smooth- 
ness; enunciation and phrasing; more difficult songs. 

Third Year. Continuation of all work done in previous 
terms. Trill is developed. Velocity studies. Arias and songs 
from the standard operas. Study of oratorios, songs, classic and 


All singing classes recite five times per week, with no time 
outside of class required, and are credited with one-half credit 
per term except in Course 2A, which recites two times per week 
and for which outside preparation is required. 

1A. Unison Singing, rhythm and tone work, ear-training for 
both rhythm and tone with special emphasis on common triads 
and the dominant seventh, songs and exercises in nine keys, and 
beginning sight reading. Text — Modern Primer. 

IB. Rhythm Forms and chord progressions applied to sight 
reading, two-part singing, advanced ear-training in rhythm and 

40 The Normal Quarterly 

tone, dictation exercises, key-signatures reviewed. Text — Modern 
Second Book. 

2A. Relative to Major and Minor Keys, four-part sing- 
ing, bass clef with special attention to the training of boys' 
voices. Text — Common School Book, Modern Series. 

2C. Chorus Practice, individual singing, study of the 
development of the voice. Text — Beacon Song Book Number 
Two and sheet music. 

3A. Chorus Drill, practice in testing voices, the con- 
struction of the chorus, glee clubs, and quartets. This course al- 
ternates with IC, beginning with IC in summer quarter of 1912. 
Text— The Modern Fourth Book. 

3B. Chorus Directing, uses of baton, time-beating cue- 
ing, score-reading, practice in directing, using the class as a 
chorus. If conditions permit, some opportunity will be given 
the ambitious students to direct the orchestra for practice. 

3C. Music Appreciation. A study of authors and their 
works, operas, cantatas, oratorios ; practice in class of giving pro- 
grams from one author. No single text is used. All operas stud- 
ied are in the library of the school, and may be used by the 

3C. Special Method in Singing. Sight singing through the 
entire set of public school books; material available for high 
school work; method of teaching the subject in all grades. Text- 
books — The Modern Music Series, Gaynor Books, and supple- 
mentary material. 


Two Periods per Week. There are glee clubs for both boys 
and girls to give their members experience in appearing in pub- 
lic. The membership of each is selected by the director from all 
the students in school who have suitable voices and who sing 
rapidly at sight. 


TnREE Rehearsals per Week. The band is a self-supporting, 
Belf -governing organization for the purpose of giving training 
in playing good music and in marching and drilling, and of 
fostering a more virile school spirit. Members of the band are 
excused from athletic work. 

The Normal Quarterly 41 


IA. English Composition. An elementary course designed 
to develop within the pupil the power of simple, strong, and 
direct expression. Special attention to spelling and punctuation. 
Text — Scott and Denney's Elementary Composition. 

IB. English Literature. Special attention to oral reading. 
Scott's Lady of the Lake, Addison's De Coverly Papers, and 
Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies are used in this course. The aim of 
all the work in literature is to develop a love for the subject and 
a taste for good books. 

IC. English Literature. A careful and appreciative study 
of one Victorian novel, the object being to show the way to get 
the best results in reading fiction; Coleridge's Shorter Poems; 
Burns 's Representative Poems, and Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 
In this course two important forms of prose are introduced as 
typical studies, and two representative poets. 

2A. English Literature. Work in poetry continued. 
Studies in Tennyson, Idylls of the King, or The Princess, and 
in Wordsworth's Shorter Poems. 

2B. English Literature. Continuation of 2A and a study 
of one, possibly two, plays of Shakespeare. 

2C. English Discourse. Study of the structure of the para- 
graph and the essay. Reading from the best English and Amer- 
ican Essayists. Frequent themes. Text — Scott and Denny's 
Paragraph- Writing. 

3B. A Course in Argumentation and Debate. Including 
study of the best forms and the preparation and delivery of de- 
bates. Text — Foster's Argumentation and Debate. 

3C. English Grammar. An advanced course in grammar, 
designed as a preparation for teaching the subject. Special at- 
tention to structure of the sentence, idioms of the language, and 
usages of best writers and speakers. Text — Kimball's English 

4A. Study of Prose Fiction, with special attention to the 
short story. Reading of the best short stories of English and 
American literature. Frequent themes, the object being to de- 
velop a trained and controlled imagination. Text — Bliss Perry's 
Study of Prose Fiction. 

42 The Normal Quarterly 

4B. English Literature. Studies in Keats, Shelley, and 
Browning. One comedy from Goldsmith or Sheridan. This 
course is put last so that the students may leave this school with 
a delightful memory of the pleasure there is in the study of 



1A. Drills in pronunciation; practice in easy sentences, 
training of the ear. Text — Bercy 's Livre des Enf ants. 

IB. Elementary Exercises; verbs introduced. Reading — 
Bercy 's Le Second Livre des Enf ants. Text — Chardenal'e 
French Course. 

1C. Study of and drill on the verbs, rules of participles and 
their different applications in oral and written expression. Read- 
ing — A. Daudet's Le Petit Chose. 

2A. Idiomatic French introduced. Special study of irregu- 
lar verbs; adverbs; pronouns introduced; oral and written ex- 
pression applying to them. Reading — Mariet's La Tache du 
Petit Pierre. Text — Chardenal continued. 

2B. Special study of indefinite, interrogative, and relative 
pronouns, of the different adjectives and their position according 
to each rule ; exceptions to preceding rules. Oral and written ex- 
pression. Reading — Jeanne Schultz La Neuvaine de Collette. 
Text — Chardenal. 

2C. Idioms with certain verbs; study of subjunctive mode; 
conjunctions used with subjunctive. Review of all preceding 
rules of grammar; oral and written expression. Reading — 
Moliere's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. 

3A. Pensees et Reflexions de La Bruyere et autres Auteurs 
Francais, compiled and arranged by Cornelia Sisson Crowther. 
Conversation based upon subject read. Text — Frazer and 
Squair's Grammar. 

3B. Reading — Hugo's Les Miserables. Composition based 
upon subject read. Text — Frazer and Squair's Grammar con- 

3C. Reading — Racine's Athalie, Esther. Conversation and 
composition based upon book read. 

The Normal Quarterly 43 


1A. Beginning Latin. A thorough drill in pronunciation, 
forms, with marking, vocabulary, and elementary principles of 
syntax. Roman method of pronunciation used. Daily exercises 
in both oral and written translation, frequent reviews, and sight 
reading. Work extends through third defilensioTi of nouns. 
Text — Collar and Daniell's First Year Latim, 

IB. Continuation of the above course, with frequent re- 
views. Close attention to relationship between Latin and Eng- 
lish words. Work to extend to the ablative absolute. Same text. 

1C. Conclusion of the above text, with reading of easy 
Latin stories. Opportunity is here taken to impress a thorough 
knowledge of declensions and conjugations. 

2A. Second and third books of Caesar 's Gallic War. Critical 
study of constructions, change of indirect discourse into direct, 
close attention given to teaching use of connectives, participles 
and clause structure. Study is made of the geographical and 
historical setting of the commentaries. A strong effort is made 
to have the student understand the Latin idiom and translate it 
into good, idiomatic English. Prose composition once a week. 
Texts — Walker's Caesar; D'Ooge's Composition. 

2B. First and fourth books of Caesar's Gallic War. Practice 
in sight reading. Prose composition once a week, as above, using 
same texts. 

2C. First and second Orations against Catiline. A care- 
ful study of Cicero's style, and the historical setting of the ora- 
tions. Texts — D'Ooge's Cicero and Composition. 

3A. Third and fourth Orations against Catiline, and 
Manilian Law. Work of previous term continued. Same texts. 

3B. First and second books of Vergil's Aeneid. Critical 
study of poetic style, and practice in scansion. Constant con- 
trast with prose forms and constructions. Mythological refer- 
ences studied. 

3C. Vergil's Aeneid continued. 


1A. Algebra. Fractions to Quadratics. A thorough knowl- 
edge of factoring and the fundamentals is presupposed. Text — 
Wentworth's High School Algebra. 

44 The Normal Quarterly 

IB. Algebra. Quadratics to the end of the book. A thoroguh 
knowledge of quadratics, both graphically and algebraically, 

progressions, series, and logarithms is required before the com- 
pletion of this course. Text — Wentworth 's High School Algebra. 

IC. Plane Geometry. First two books of Wentworth- 
Smith's Plane Geometry. 

2A. Plane Geometry. Completion of Wentworth-Smith. 
Many original problems and much construction work is required 
in this term. 

2B. Solid Geometry. Emphasis is laid on arithmetical 
computation in this course. Text — Wentworth-Smith. 

2C. Higher Algebra. A hasty review of the principles of 
high school algebra, followed by the solution of higher equations, 
detached coefficients, series, and determinants. Elementary al- 
gebra must precede this course. Text — Hawke 's Higher Algebra. 

3A. Advanced Arithmetic. The work in this term is 
taken up from the teacher's standpoint. A knowledge of ele- 
mentary arithmetic and high school algebra is required. Text — 

3A. Farm Arithmetic and Accounts. This course con- 
sists in an application of arithmetical principles to the solution 
of the every-day problems of the home and farm, such as esti- 
mating the cost of materials for buildings and fences, ditching, 
irrigating, road making, food values, dairying, stock raising, in- 
surance of farm property, taxation, marketing of farm products, 
transportation, etc. Its aim will be to acquaint the students with 
the arithmetical processes of which the progressive farmer should 
be master. Daily records will be kept to illustrate a simple 
method of keeping farm accounts. 

3A. Trigonometry. A thorough knowledge of right and 
oblique triangles, computations by the use of logarithms and by 
natural functions; some field work is attempted in this course. 
Text — Wentworth. 

3B. Analytical Geometry. Here we take up geometry 
from an analytical or algebraic standpoint. A good working 
knowledge of algebra and plane geometry must precede this 
course. Text — Ashton's Plane and Spherical Analytical Geome- 



*: • 


■«%&'% Hi 

Rmm^"'^'" fil 

The Normal Quarterly 45 

3C and 4A. Calculus. An elementary course in differen- 
tial and integral calculus. 


2C. Psychology. A description of the mental processes, 
their function in nature, their relation to the nervous system, 
and the dynamic tendencies of the mind in broad outline. 
Text — Thorndike's Elements of Psychology. 

3A. Pedagogy and the Principles of Teaching. Prere- 
quisite: Psychology 2C. The essential general principles un- 
derlying and determining the whole educative process. Text — 
Thorn dyke 's Principles of Teaching. 

3B. Applied Psychology. Prerequisites 2C and 3A. 
The laws which govern human nature and the principles which 
control and direct all mental and physical activity as directly 
applied to the art of teaching and schoolroom procedure. Text — 
Home's Psychological Principles. 

3B. Pedagogy and Observation. Prerequisites: Psychol- 
ogy 2C and Pedagogy 3 A. A study of the method of the recita- 
tion and work in plan writing. The last seven weeks of this 
course are given to special methods of teaching arithmetic, read- 
ing, and spelling in the elementary schools. Text — McMurry's 
Method of the Recitation. 

3C. Pedagogy and Observation. Prerequisite: Pedagogy 
and Observation 3B. The content, aims, materials and methods 
in teaching literature, language, geography, and history in the 
elementary schools. No text-book is used; ample references are 
provided in the general and class libraries. 

4A. History of Education. A systematic study of the 
great educational movements, with greater emphasis upon the 
more recent tendencies of modern times as exemplified in Amer- 
ica, France and Germany. Text — Monroe's Briefer Course. 

4B. School Administration. Problems in Organization, 
supervision, and management. The state course of study for 
both the elementary and high schools. The state school laws. 
Text — Dutton and Snedden. 

4B. Rural School Organization. The work in this sub- 
ject consists of a study of those problems affecting most vitally 
the rural school, consolidation of schools, special taxation, grad- 

46 The Normal Quarterly 

ing of rural schools, wider use of rural school plant, rural school 
architecture, ornamentation of house and grounds, relation of 
rural schools to other educational agencies, etc. Also a study of 
the tenure of office, qualifications, salaries of rural teachers with 
special reference to an improvement of present conditions; a 
study of rural life and rural school statistics. 


3C, 4A and 4B. Each student in these three classes 
spends one period of fifty minutes daily in the practice school. 
Half of the period is given to teaching a class, and half to observa- 
tion and preparation for the daily critique. Each practice teacher 
retains the same class during a period of twelve weeks, at the 
end of which both class and subject are changed. One period 
weekly is given to observing model lessons taught by the critic 

Every lesson taught by student teachers must have careful 
preparation, and must be based on written plans submitted to 
and approved by the critic teacher. Through actual practice 
under the guidance of an experienced and sympathetic critic, ob- 
servation of expert teaching, and the discussions in the daily 
critique, the student teacher gains skill in the application of edu- 
cational principles. The professional instruction received in the 
academic and pedagogical departments is here crystallized into 
experience. Frequent opportunities are given practice teachers 
to have private consultation with their critic teachers and the 
head of the training department. 



The agricultural work of these three terms is of a very prac- 
tical nature, special effort being made to have it relate closely 
to conditions as they exist in the State at present. Some time 
in each term is devoted to a study of educational agencies em- 
ployed in agricultural extension work and of the attitude which 
the rural school should maintain towards them. 

IB. Origin, formation, type and kinds of soil; water-hold- 
ing capacity and water content of soils ; the plant in relation to 
soil and moisture ; the influence on plants of humus in the soil ; 

The Normal Quarterly 47 

and other properties and qualities of soils. Text — Halligan's 
Fundamentals of Agriculture. 

1C. A study of farm and forage crops; rotation and diversi- 
fication, with emphasis on prevailing practices in Louisiana; 
stock raising by the average farmer; and best methods in the 
production of staple Louisiana crops. Text — Halligan's Funda- 
mentals of Agriculture. 

2A. This term's work includes a study of home gardening, 
fruit growing and commercial trucking profitable in Louisiana. 
The last three weeks are devoted to a study of diseases and pests 
of garden, field, and orchard. Practical work in gardening, 
spraying, constructing hotbeds, etc., is conducted through the 
entire course. Text — Halligan's, supplemented by bulletins. 

2B. This course includes a study of live stock, their general 
care, management, feeding and adaptability to Louisiana con- 
ditions. Characteristics of the various breeds and types and 
their relation to cost of production are made important items 
of consideration. Special attention is given to the chemical com- 
position of food stuffs and the compounding of economical bal- 
anced rations suited to Louisiana conditions. From this outline 
it will be seen that the purpose of the course is to instill among 
prospective teachers a greater interest in the live stock industry 
of the State, and through the teachers to lead farmers to give 
better care to their stock and greater attention to the production 
of better breeds and more useful types. 


2C. The course in dairying comprises the origin, history 
and development of the dairy breeds ; the study of the score card 
and its use in scoring dairy cattle ; feeding for milk production ; 
general care and management of the herd ; soiling crops and sys- 
tems best adapted to Louisiana conditions ; silos, their construc- 
tion and use; sanitation in the stables, the production of clean 
and certified milk; the composition of milk, causes and condi- 
tions influencing the quantity and quality ; handling for market 
production ; farm butter-making, pasteurization and general care 
in the home supply ; the Babcock test, method and purpose. This 

48 The Normal Quarterly 

course will also include poultry husbandry; the varieties and 
their origin; selection, general care, feeding for egg production; 
incubation and brooding ; the rearing and care of chicks ; poultry 
houses adapted to Louisiana; use of trap nests and some of the 
more common diseases of fowls. Text — Michel 's Dairy Farming, 
and bulletins. 


3A. Study of plant morphology, physiology, and ecology, 
with stress upon the last two. Laboratory work is done with the 
microscope and experiments in germination and plant propaga- 
tion carried out in laboratory and field. Identification of com- 
mon trees and flowering plants, with a manual, is part of this 
term's work. The essential difference of flowering and seedless 
plants is taught. Collection of leaves and flowers is made and 
note-books kept. Text — Andrew's Complete Botany. 

3B. This course is somewhat similar to that of 3A, but 
deals more definitely with economic plants, their pollenation, 
propagation, enemies and associates. The cryptograms are close- 
ly studied so far as time permits ; literature on the subject read, 
and field observations made. Note-books are kept and field and 
laboratory work required. Text — Bergen and Caldwell. 

IIIC. This is an advanced course for teachers. Its scope is 
as follows : Bones, their structure, shape and use ; general divi- 
sion of the skeleton; kind and structure of joints; hygiene of 
spinal column and arch of foot. Muscles, macroscopic and micro- 
scopic differentiation; effect of exercise on growth and bodily 
powers. The blood, general description, forces and need of cir- 
culation; purification of blood, including gross anatomy of 
lungs, with special stress on how to breathe ; hygiene concerning 
tight clothing, ventilation, and catching cold. Foods, main divi- 
sions and use of each variety, anatomy of organs digesting each 
kind ; care of teeth. The skin, its anatomy and uses ; bathing and 
clothing. The nervous system; use of sympathetic and cerebro- 
spinal systems; relation between nerves and muscles; reflex and 
voluntary movements. Text — Conn and Budington's Advanced 


The Normal Quarterly 49 

4A. The purpose of this course is to equip teachers with a 
vital knowledge of individual and community hygiene and sani- 
tation. The sociological side of the subject is stressed, and 
emphasis is laid on rural sanitation. The course is a continua- 
tion of physiology 3C and begins with a review of personal 
hygiene. The following subjects are studied: cleanliness in 
home, yard, school, street, factory, dairy, and public places; im- 
portance and means of and equipment for ; disposal of refuse and 
sewerage; the sanitary toilet and soil pollution; the septic tank 
and its construction; diseases of children and infectious and 
contagious diseases, means of dissemination, diagnosis and treat- 
ment; typhoid fever and the house fly; malarial and yellow 
fevers and mosquitoes; tuberculosis, its spread, cure, and pre- 
vention; the bubonic plague and the rat; the State and County 
Boards of Health ; sanitary laws of Louisiana ; organized agencies 
of sanitation. 


IA. This course comprises the study of simple protozoa 
and types of each of the higher classes of animals. Collections 
are made, specimens preserved, and lantern slides used in fre- 
quent lectures. At all times students are encouraged to observe 
the life around them with special reference to economic value. 
Some dissection is done and the microscope used in the study 
of protozoa. Note-books are kept and drawings made. Text — 
Her rick's General Zoology. 

3C. A few days are given to a general review of protozoa 
and microscopic work. The general principles of animal classi- 
fication is then taken up and such factors as environment, habi- 
tat, and enemies developed by collateral reading and discussion 
The study of bird and insect life, their relation to each other, to 
man, and to plants studied as bearing upon local or state condi- 
tions rather than the world at large. Collections of insects are 
made and field observation required and records kept. Text — 
Bulletins; Kellogg 's American Insects. 

4A. This course covers, though from a broader standpoint, 
those given under I A and 3C. Vertebrate forms are studied 
to gain some knowledge of comparative anatomy ; the life history 

50 The Normal Quarterly 

of domesticated animals traced and theses required, or assigned 
subjects along this line. Instruction is given in the use of the 
microscope, the preservation of specimens, and the making of 
collections for the teacher's use. Field and class note-books, with 
collateral reading, are required. 



The course in Chemistry 2B and 2C is approximately 
equivalent to the course offered in the approved high schools of 
Louisiana. Advance courses are offered in 3C and 4A to give 
the student a broader knowledge of the subject and to qualify 
him better as a teacher of this subject. These two courses are 
elective. Laboratory work, six hours per week, is required of stu- 
dents pursuing these courses. Laboratory note-books are kept 
by the students, and the records made at the time the experi- 
ments are performed. 

2B. A study of the non-metals and some of the principles of 
the subject. The laboratory exercises form the basis of the work. 
Twenty experiments are required during this term. 

2C. A continuation of the non-metals and the most import- 
ant metals. Twenty experiments are made, as in the previous 
term. Same text. 

3C. A more careful study of the laws and principles of the 
subject, together with a short course in qualitative analysis. 
Texts — Newth's Inorganic Chemistry and Irish's Qualitative 

4A. A continuation of Newth's text and a brief course in 
quantitative analysis. 


I A. The chief aim of the work in this subject is to give 
an appreciation of the extent of the industrial development of 
Louisiana and the great future possibilities along these lines, 
based upon our natural advantages and resources. It tincludes a 
study of the chief occupations: agriculture, lumbering, mining, 
and commerce; particular attention being given to our com- 
mercial advantages in the way of facilities for export trade, nav- 
igable streams, railroads, and cheap railroad building, etc. 

This study of Louisiana is followed by a study of the same 

The Normal Quarterly 51 

features of other states and countries, emphasis being given to 
those activities bearing the most vital relation to the business 
of our own State. 


3A. Erosion: Land forms, relief, ground water, running 
water. Emphasis on delta and other alluvial lands, lower Mis- 
sissippi basin and delta used as type. Economic results stressed. 

Vulcanism, accompanying phenomena. Terrestrial magnet- 
ism, declination. 

Earth relations, form, motions, seasons, latitude, longitude, 
standard time. 

Atmosphere : Constitution, temperature, thermal maps, pres- 
sure, barometer, moisture, evaporation, precipitation. 

Great wind and calm belts, economic influences on countries 
affected — United States as a type. 

Weather maps: Weather bureau, value and use of maps; 
interpretation of current maps. 

Ocean : Coastal survey, laying of cables, tides, currents. 

Aim of entire course is to give a working knowledge of funda- 
mentals of physical geography and their influences on mathe- 
matical, descriptive and political geography. Text — Salisbury's 


The course in physics begins in Term IC. It is the equiva- 
lent of the high school course and is intended to give the student 
a general knowledge of the subject. This is a prerequisite to 
the course offered in 3 A and 3B. The laboratory is well 
equipped with the necessary apparatus for individual work and 
note-books are kept by each student, the notes being made at the 
time the experiment is performed. The note-books are kept in 
the laboratory all the time. 

Five class periods and two double laboratory periods are re- 
quired each week. 

IC. Mechanics and heat. Fifteen experiments, both quali- 
tative and quantitative in nature, are performed in this term. 
Text — Carhart and Chute. 

52 The Normal Quarterly 

2A. Sound, light and electricity. Twenty experiments as 
in IC are performed. Text — Carhart and Chute. 

3A. Advanced work in electricity and magnetism. Special 
attention is given to the practical side of electricity. A large 
amount of laboratory work is done in this course. IC and 2 A 
are prerequisites to this course. Text — Ames and Bliss. 

2B. Advanced work in mechanics. IC, 2A and Trignome- 
try are prerequisites to this course. Text — Ames and Bliss. 


3A. An analysis of the structure and working of govern- 
ment in the United States and in Louisiana, with some examina- 
tion of the historical development of existing forms; reports 
from reference books and current literature to acquaint the stu- 
dent with source materials. Text — Government in the State and 
Nation, James and Sanford. 

3B. It is intended that this study shall give a knowledge 
of a few of the most important and fundamental principles of 
economics as applied to the leading occupations of our people 
and the business of the world. It includes a brief survey of a 
few of the most important human activities, such as agriculture, 
mining, manufacturing and transportation, together with the 
relation of such occupations and industries to the needs and 
wants of the world. It is expected that such a study will enable 
teachers better to understand the great economic problems of the 
day and their relation to the governmental functions of our na- 


3C. Following the study of general economics, the aim of 
this term's work is to develop an appreciation of the great im- 
portance of agriculture with its related activities in the affairs 
of the world. The history of farming, the weak and strong 
features of agriculture as a business, some of the most important 
rural problems of the day, the value of organization, and simi- 
lar topics receive attention. Particular application of the prin- 
ciples studied will be made to the rural South. 

The Normal Quarterly 53 


IB. Ancient History. A brief study of Oriental nations, 
to show their influence on Greece and Rome. Special emphasis 
is laid on the influences exerted upon modern nations by Greek 
art and culture, Roman law and organization, and Teutonic 
blood and customs. Text — Botsford's Ancient History for Be- 

IC. Mediaeval History. The invasion and settlement of 
the barbarians; the revival of the empire, the growth of the pa- 
pacy, and the struggle between the two; Mohammed and his 
religion; the Crusades; the rise of nationalities, mediaeval in- 
stitutions, and the Renaissance. Text — Myers' Mediaeval and 
Modern History. 

2A. Modern History. The principal topics treated are: 
The Reformation; the religious wars; the struggle for constitu- 
tional liberty in England ; the ascendency of France under Louis 
XIII and Louis XIV; the rise of Prussia; Engand's colonial su- 
premacy; the era of the French Revolution and Napoleon; the 
period of reaction and the revolutions of 1830 and 1848; the 
nineteenth century; the Eastern question; and a summary of 
the progress of civilization in the nineteenth century. While 
the primary purpose is to give the student a knowledge of the 
political history of the period, due attention is paid to the eco- 
nomic, social, and religious movements that are essential to this 
subject. Text — Myers' Mediaeval and Modern History. 

2B. American History. Study of the great epochs of 
American history to give a unified view of the United States 
as a whole. The effects of geographical environment upon occu- 
pations and of occupations upon social life and government are 
emphasized. Text — Doub 's History of the United States. 

3B. The American Revolution. An intensive study of the 
causes and course of the American Revolution, the States under 
the Articles of Confederation, and the making and adoption of 
the Constitution. Text — Fiske's Critical Period in American 

3C. The American Civil War. A thorough study of the 
period 1829 to 1865 in American history. The chief topics are : 
slavery as a system; the anti-slavery movement; Texas and the 

54 The Normal Quarterly 

Mexican War; the Compromise of 1850; the Kansas-Nebraska 
question; the Dred Scott case; the rise and triumph of the Re- 
publican Party ; the secession of the Southern States ; the course 
and results of the war. 


4B. The aim of this course is threefold. First, the stu- 
dent must grasp the facts in sociology which place it among the 
sciences. Second, he must get a knowledge of social conditions 
in our own and European countries to use as a basis of compari- 
son. Third, he must understand conditions in the South, and in 
Louisiana in particular, in the light of this comparison, and be 
able to aid in changing these conditions when he goes out in 
the State as a teacher. 

The stereopticon and collateral reading are to be freely used, 
especially in attaining the second part of the aim. 



Agriculture 46 

Alby M. Smith Scholarship 23 

Alumni Loan Fund 23 

Athletics 30-31 

Athletics Associations 26 

Band 26 

Board of Administrators 4 

Boarding department 21 

Books and stationery 16 

Botany 48 

Buildings and land 11 

Calendar 3 

Chemistry 50 

Civics 52 

Club rules 22 

Courses in mathematics 34 

Courses in science 34 

Courses of study 32-34 

Credit requirements for gradu- 
ation 34 

Dairying 47 

Drawing 35 

Economics 52 

English 41 

Equipment 13-16 

Expenses 19 

Faculty 5-8 

Farm animals 47 

French 42 

Geography, industrial 50 

Graduation 18 

Gymnasium 16 

Historical statement 9 

History 53 

Household economics 35-37 

Hygiene and Sanitation 49 


Laboratories 15 

Language courses 34 

Latin 43 

Library , 14 

Literary societies 25 

Lyceum course 28 

Manual training and shop work. 37-38 

Mathematics 43-45 

Music courses 38-40 

Music rooms 16 

Outline of courses 33 

Parish scholarships 24-25 

Physics 51 

Physiography 51 

Physiology 48 

Piano 38 

Practice teaching 46 

Professional work 45-46 

Purpose of Normal School 9 

Religious societies 26 

Requirements for admission.... 16 

Required subjects in all courses 34 

Rural education course 34 

Rural economics -od 

Scholarships 23-25 

Singing and drawing courses. . . 35 

Singing 39-40 

Site 10 

Sociology 5 4 

Student organizations 25-28 

Summer school 29 

Violin 38-39 

Voice 39 

Zoology 49 



(To be filled out and signed by the Parish Health Officer or a 
responsible practicing physician.) 

This certifies that 

of La., is known to me personally ; 


1. That . .he is free from consumption and other contagious 
2. That . .he has no deformity such as would interfere with 
usefulness or success as a teacher. 

3. That . .he has not been exposed within fifteen days to 
typhoid, yellow or scarlet fever, diphtheria, smallpox or measles ; 

4. That . .he is at this day in good health. 

(Signed) M. D. 

La., , 191.... 


To the State Normal School, Natchitoches, La.: 

This certifies that 

of La., is personally known to me, and 

that I recommend as a person of good character, 

worthy of being admitted to the Normal School to prepare 

self for the office of teacher. 


Parish Superintendent. 

, La., , 191... 

Applicants not known to the Superintendent may have their 
certificates signed by the President of the School Board, Presi- 
dent of Police Jury, Sheriff, Clerk, or Judge.